# SCOPE AND EXCITEMENT OF PHYSICS  (PHYSICAL WORLD, PART -2, BASED ON CBSE REVISED SYLLABUS )

## Scope and excitement of Physics:

### Scope of Physics:

The scope of physics is the size or possibility upto which we can study or measure the things  under physics.

To understand broadly, we can take some examples as if we study one body moves from one point to another point then what would be the minimum and maximum length that can be measured ? we measure the distance as it may be up to 1 m, 1000 m, 10,000 m, 100000 metre or it may be upto the size of Earth. But Earth revolves around the Sun as it is a part of the solar system, so we measure the size of the solar system. Solar system is a part of the Galaxy as we know it, the Milky way. So we measure the size of our galaxy. Also the galaxy is a part of  this Universe. Further, what would be the smallest size we can measure ? So we came to know about the atom. Again we got the smallest particle than an atom that is electrons and protons, so we study the size of an electron or proton.

Fig : Atomic Structure

Hence we got a length or size that we can measure under physics and it is from the size of an electron to the size of the universe , which is about

10-15 m     to        1035 m

This is the scope of physics in length or in size.

Now, what would be the smallest and maximum mass that we can measure under physics ? The Smallest particle that exists has a mass of about 10-31 kg  and the largest thing whose mass we can measure is the universe that is 1055 kg. We cannot get a particle having mass less than 10-31 kg and an object having mass greater than 1055 kg.

Fig : A Galaxy in the Universe

Hence the scope of Physics in measuring mass of an object is from

10-31 kg              to             1055 kg

So the study we are making for the different quantities, their limits or their size make  the scope of Physics.

Now we can further consider the scope under two basic ranges, generally known as macro range and micro range. In Macro range we can see the particle with our naked eyes, so the size of these particles is somehow big or visible to us. whereas, in micro range there are those particles  whom we cannot see with our Eyes.

Macro range - it is visible, terrestrial and can be measured in the lab.

Micro range - it is very small and cannot be seen by eyes, like atoms and elections.

There is also a new category in between macro and micro and it is known as Meso range.

Meso range - few thousands of atoms together.

Now, what would be the minimum and maximum time intervals that we can take under consideration? Time intervals may vary from 10-22 s ( time taken by electromagnetic radiation to cross a nuclear distance ) to 1018 s ( the life of the Sun ).

Despite such a wide range of length, mass and time intervals, the methods have been developed  which enable us to measure all of them. It is quite exciting that such an enormous number of measurements of mass, length and time intervals can be done by methods which are only a few in number.

### Excitement of Physics

Physics makes us very excited. As we know that all the electronic devices and the new advancement in technology based on the principles of Physics.  We saw an aeroplane flying in the sky for the first time we got excited, we saw a screen touch cell phone for the first time he got excited . Television,  refrigerator, aeroplane, cell phones, computers, fans, lights, vehicles etc all are invented by the help of principles of Physics. With the  help of physics we prepare and invent so many gadgets, equipment and new things which are making our life very easy and very interesting, these are the excitement of Physics.

 Fig : Gadgets make our life excited

### Physics in relation to science:

1. Physics with chemistry: the basic relation between Physics and Chemistry is in atomic number and  chemical bonding. These bindings are due to Electrostatic forces, governed by the principle of Physics.

Other examples that are based on the principle of Physics are - Ionisation, X-ray diffraction chemical bonding etc.

2.Physics with medical: The equipment to diagnose problems and disease in the human body are based on Physics.

Examples: X-ray, sonography, C.T. scan, radioactivity, lasers, Robotics etc.

3.Astronomy:  we use telescopes and principles of physics in astronomy.

In all the other branches of Science like geology, meteorology, Oceanography and seismology, we use basic principles of physics or the equipment based on the principle of Physics.

### Physics in relation to technology:

Technology is the application of science in general and physics in particular for practical purposes. A few advancements made in technology on the basis of Physics are as below:

1. The study of lever - systems has helped to design a large number of very useful machines.

2. The study of satellites has made it possible to forecast weather very accurately.

3. Conversion of heat energy into mechanical work has led us to design heat engines.

4. Discovery of vacuum tubes has led to wireless communication and to the design of radio and television.

5. Discovery of X rays has been found to be of immense use in medical sciences. Whereas it is used to diagnose various types of disease.  X-rays are also used in radiotherapy.

6. The discovery of nuclear fission has proved to be a tremendous source of energy.

Fig : X - Ray Machine

Apart from above discoveries, there are so many other inventions, which made the technology very advanced.

### Physics in relation to society:

Any advancement or discovery in physics is directly linked to society. It is because whatever we thought or discover, is for the sake of advancement in human life. Hence it directly affects the society.

Fig : Technology used by Society

For example, the advancement in the field of communication, such as telephone, Telegraph, teleprinters etc enable us to quickly exchange messages between people far away from each other. The radio and television have made it possible to have instant communication with the other parts of the world. By the launching of satellites one can instantly see anything happening in any part of the world. And all this, just because of Physics.